the international perspective


Silinecek Not #1: İçeriklerimizi nasıl girelim? Lütfen bulduğunuz linkleri ilgili ülkenin altına "Heading#3 Başlık (Giren: İsim) > URL (linklemeyi unutmayınız, paste etmek otomatik linklemiyor) > Özet" şeklinde giriniz. Eğer girmek istediğiniz ülke aşağıdaki menüde yoksa alfabetik sıradaki yerine ülkenin başlığını Heading#1 olarak açabilirsiniz. Ülke isimlerinden hemen önce ülke ismi ile Anchor açıp, üst menüde ülke adını ilgili kıtaya yazın ve bunu oraya linkleyin. (Eğer bunu yapamazsanız sayfanın en altındaki başlıkta bana not bırakın, ben yaparım ~Sercan.) Ayrıca ülke başlıklarının alt satırına üst menüye geri götüren linki var olan bir başlıktan copy/paste ile koyabilirsiniz. Çizgileri de doğru yerlere koyalım.

Silinecek Not #2: Seçim / sosyal medya bağlantısı hakkında çok fazla bilgi bulunmayan bazı ülkeler için genel sosyal medya bilgileri de koyuyorum listeye (örnek: Gürcistan), gerekiyorsa sonradan bunları silebiliriz.


- Dünya Genel


- Central Africa

- Güney Afrika

- Kenya

- Nigeria

- Uganda

- Zambia

- Zimbabwe

- Ghana


- Brezilya

- Kanada



- Gürcistan

- Hindistan

- Japonya

- Singapur

- Tayland


- Avrupa Genel

- Almanya

- Belçika

- Finlandiya

- Hollanda

- İskoçya

- İsveç

- İtalya

- Norveç

- UK


- Afganistan

- Cezayir

- Fas

- Irak

- İran

- Mısır

- Suriye

- Tunus


- Avusturalya

- Malezya

- Yeni Zelanda


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* Air Wars: Television Advertising and Social Media in Election Campaigns, 1952-2012 (Giren: Sercan)

Tracing the evolution of political advertising, Darrell M. West returns with his much anticipated sixth edition of Air Wars: Television Advertising and Social Media in Election Campaigns, 1952-2012. Integrating the latest data and key events from the 2012 campaigns, West provides in-depth examination and insight into how candidates plan and execute advertising campaigns, how the media covers these campaigns, and how American voters are ultimately influenced by them. Taking into account technological advances, West now includes discussion of how campaigns are utilizing social media tools to reach audiences and to what effect.

* Political Power of Social Media - Technology, the Public Sphere Sphere, and Political Change (Giren: Sercan)

Shirky, C. (2011) Foreign Aff. Vol.90, p.28

* "I Wanted to Predict Elections with Twitter and all I got was this Lousy Paper" -- A Balanced Survey on Election Prediction using Twitter Data (Giren: Sercan)

Predicting X from Twitter is a popular fad within the Twitter research subculture. It seems both appealing and relatively easy. Among such kind of studies, electoral prediction is maybe the most attractive, and at this moment there is a growing body of literature on such a topic. This is not only an interesting research problem but, above all, it is extremely difficult. However, most of the authors seem to be more interested in claiming positive results than in providing sound and reproducible methods. It is also especially worrisome that many recent papers seem to only acknowledge those studies supporting the idea of Twitter predicting elections, instead of conducting a balanced literature review showing both sides of the matter. After reading many of such papers I have decided to write such a survey myself. Hence, in this paper, every study relevant to the matter of electoral prediction using social media is commented. From this review it can be concluded that the predictive power of Twitter regarding elections has been greatly exaggerated, and that hard research problems still lie ahead.

* The Internet and National Elections: A Comparative Study of Web Campaigning (Giren: Sercan)

This ambitious study draws upon a common conceptual framework - the "Web sphere," and a shared methodological approach called Web feature analysis - in order to examine how the Internet is used by a variety of political actors during periods of electoral activity. Research teams around the world conducted analyses in technologically advanced nations, as well as those with low Internet diffusion, and a variety of countries in the middle range of network penetration, and from a variety of political and cultural contexts.

* Routledge Handbook of Internet Politics (Giren: Sercan)

The Routledge Handbook of Internet Politics is a collection of over thirty chapters dealing with the most significant scholarly debates in this rapidly growing field of study. Organized in four broad sections: Institutions, Behavior, Identities, and Law and Policy, the Handbook summarizes and criticizes contemporary debates while pointing out new departures. A comprehensive set of resources, it provides linkages to established theories of media and politics, political communication, governance, deliberative democracy and social movements, all within an interdisciplinary context. The contributors form a strong international cast of established and junior scholars.

* Party Change, Social Media and the Rise of ‘Citizen-initiated’ Campaigning (Giren: Gökhan)

This article argues that digital media are introducing a new grassroots-based mode of ‘citizen-initiated campaigning’ (CIC) that challenges the dominant professionalized model of campaign management by devolving power over core tasks to the grassroots. After defining the practice through reference to the 2008 campaign of Barack Obama and online parties literature, we devise a measure of CIC that is applied to UK parties in the 2010 election. Our findings show that CIC is emerging outside the U.S. and adoption is associated with major party status, although it may be of particular appeal to political actors facing a resource deficit. The conclusions focus on the implications of CIC for new forms of party membership, indirect voter mobilization and the contextual factors influencing this new model of campaigning.

* Social media changes face of general elections 2014 (Giren: Yuan)

The three American social media giants - Facebook, Twitter and Google - have emerged as a major player in the ongoing general elections in India, with political parties and candidates competing with each other in breaking the news, spreading their message through these outlets in addition to those via the traditional media.


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* Experts: Afghan turnout boosted by social media (Giren: Yuan)

Activists and experts say that social media campaigns were among the factors behind an unprecedented high turnout in the Afghan elections. An estimated seven million Afghans went to the polls, despite Taliban threats.


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* Social networks and mass media as mobilizers and demobilizers: A study of turnout at a German local election (Giren: Sercan)

This paper explores the impact of informal communication in voters’ social networks and the formal communication of the mass media on individuals’ propensity to take part in elections. Analyzing survey data from a recent local election in Germany it shows how both forms of communication may not only mobilize, but also demobilize voters. On the whole, personal communication appears more influential than mass communication. The media’s effects are generally weaker than those of social networks. Moreover, they are mediated by attitudes, while social networks have strong direct effects. These originate mainly from information conveyed through personal contact with voters and abstainers in one’s immediate social environment. Social voting norms are only influential, if they originate from persons’ families and are in favor of electoral participation.

* Predicting Elections with Twitter: What 140 Characters Reveal about Political Sentiment (Giren: Sercan)

This study uses the context of the German federal election to investigate whether Twitter is used as a forum for political deliberation and whether online messages on Twitter validly mirror offline political sentiment. Using LIWC text analysis software, we conducted a content analysis of over 100,000 messages containing a reference to either a political party or a politician. Our results show that Twitter is indeed used extensively for political deliberation.

* Social media's sway on elections 'growing' ( Giren: Yuan)

Social media is not a vital factor in winning an election, but political parties should not ignore its importance, a seminar in Bangkok was told yesterday.

* Social Media Monitoring of the Campaigns for the 2013 German Bundestag Elections on Facebook and Twitter (Giren: Tuğba)

Absract: As more and more people use social media to communicate their view and perception of elections, researchers have increasingly been collecting and analyzing data from social media platforms. Our research focuses on social media communication related to the 2013 election of the German parlia-ment [translation: Bundestagswahl 2013]. We constructed several social media datasets using data from Facebook and Twitter. First, we identified the most relevant candidates (n=2,346) and checked whether they maintained social media accounts. The Facebook data was collected in November 2013 for the period of January 2009 to October 2013. On Facebook we identified 1,408 Facebook walls containing approximately 469,000 posts. Twitter data was collected between June and December 2013 finishing with the constitution of the government. On Twitter we identified 1,009 candidates and 76 other agents, for example, journalists. We estimated the number of relevant tweets to exceed eight million for the period from July 27 to September 27 alone. In this document we summarize past re-search in the literature, discuss possibilities for research with our data set, explain the data collection procedures, and provide a description of the data and a discussion of issues for archiving and dissemi-nation of social media data.


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* Euro politicians take on social media (Giren: Yuan)

Facebook, Twitter, YouTube - European Union politicians love to make contact with their voters on social media .

* Social Media Alternative Views of the European Elections (Giren: Yuan)

On 25 May, 400 million citizens are asked to elect members of the European Parliament for the next 5 years. The social media and alternative communication tools offer users new ways to share information on the European Parliament, its work and its powers.

* European elections: Party-by-party guide (Giren: Yuan)

National Liberal Party: If elected, the party says its MEPs will consult constituents through social media and petitions before deciding how to vote on key issues. On itsparty website, it says its MEPs will also donate part of their salaries to good causes. Candidates: Fielding candidates in London only.

* An opportunity for engagement in cyberspace: Political youth Web sites during the 2004 European Parliament election campaign (Giren: Sercan)

While youth are much more active online in many realms, including politics, than the average citizen, they are also becoming progressively more disconnected from traditional governmental and party politics. Some argue that such disengagement leads to increased apathy and even alienation. Political detachment, coupled with the younger generations' noteworthy online use and presence, points to a considerable Internet potential for reversing such indifference. Based on quantitative content analysis, this article examines the possibilities for online participation available to youth in the context of the 2004 European Parliament election campaign.

* Europe is heading to the polls! And you? (Giren: Yuan) ‪#‎ep2014‬ ‪#‎vote2014‬

Are you planning to vote?Yes - no - you haven't yet decided? Students from different European countries and an EU expert come together in a Google Hangout to talk about it. You can watch the whole Hangout on YouTube.

* How digital is the EU? (Giren: Yuan)

Europeans have been to the polls in what seems to have been one of the most publicized EU parliament elections. It could just be a perception thing, as more and more we focus on the influence of social media. So was it a success for social media?

* Members of the European Parliament Online: The Use of Social Media in Political Marketing (Giren: Gökhan)

The appearance of political marketing and campaigning on social media is a relatively new phenomenon, which was first introduced in the US before spreading to Europe. The importance of online political marketing can be seen in,among other factors, the major advantages offered by the Internet—namely the rapid transmission of information and the possibilities for large numbers of people to connect. This is especially significant for politics on the EU level, which embraces a body of 375 million voters. Despite the fact that not everyone uses the Internet in Europe, the percentage of those who do is considered to be high enough for its application in politics. The goal of this paper is to examine the connection between European politics, Members of the European Parliament (MEPs) and the use of social media, and to give suggestions on how the use of social media in political marketing could be further advanced.

* Online social networks and micro-blogging in political campaigning: The exploration of a new campaign tool and a new campaign style (Giren: Gökhan)

This study explores how candidates running for the European Parliament (EP) in 2009 used micro-blogging and online social networks – in this case Twitter ( in the early stage of its adoption – to communicate and connect with citizens. Micro-blogging in general, and Twitter in particular, is one of the new and popular Web 2.0 applications, yet there has been little research focusing on the use of Twitter by politicians. After reviewing different types of campaigning strategies and introducing a new and distinct strategy, this descriptive and exploratory study focuses on political candidates’ use of micro-blogging and online social networking (i.e. Twitter) from a longitudinal, social network, and ideological perspective. The results clearly show that most candidates in 2009 still used Twitter reluctantly. Those who used Twitter did so predominantly for electoral campaigning and only sparingly for continuous campaigning. Candidates from progressive parties are the most active users of Twitter as a campaigning tool, whereas conservatives are virtually absent online. Although candidates’ first degree networks are still relatively small and unconnected, their second degree networks are quite extensive. Candidates from parties in opposition have more extensive first degree networks than those from ruling parties. Candidates from fringe parties show small online networks.

* Video: “Civic Participation in Political Life, European Elections” Debate, Tallinn (Giren: Gökhan)

In a modern democracy, voting is only one of the many ways to participate in politics – it is equally important that citizens have a say in public decisions on a daily basis. Whereas the work of national parliaments tends to be under our close scrutiny, we sometimes lose sight of Members of the European Parliament once they’ve taken their cosy seats in Brussels and Strasbourg. What could be done to make sure this doesn’t happen after the elections this May? The debate on April 15 looked into the theory and practice of the European Parliament’s work, presented cases and examples from different European countries and sought to answer the following questions:

· What are our rights and opportunities as citizens to influence the decisions made in the European Parliament?

· What communication channels and methods are available for Members of the European Parliament for involving citizens? Are they citizen-friendly, functional and easy to use?

· How successful has the European Parliament been in engaging citizens and what concrete steps should the new MEPs take to make citizen participation a daily working reality?

Based on the discussion, a set of recommendations will be made to new MEPs and citizens to facilitate mutual communication and participation.

* 2009 European Parliamentary Elections on the Web

A mediatization perspective (Giren: Gökhan)

This paper evaluates the mediatizing potential of the internet on the politics of European integration and the process of enhancing the democratic legitimacy of the European Union (EU), i.e. the ways in which online media participate or interfere with the democratization of the EU by either advancing or constraining the development of a legitimate political order respectively. Using three ‘mediatization potential’ indicators (publicity, inclusion and degrees of contestation), we focus our analysis on the online debates during the 2009 EU elections (May-June 2009) in twelve member-states and trans-European level. Our findings highlight the multiple, and conflicting dynamics of mediatization present in the EU political e-sphere.

* How Wired Are The 2014 European Elections (Giren: Gökhan)

This week, 400 million European citizens will elect the 751 members of the European Parliament. Selecting the representatives of the only democratically elected EU institution would in theory be an appealing occasion for citizens to engage with the European policy sphere. However, turnouts have historically been low since the first direct European elections in 1979, with an average 43 percent taking part in the last parliamentary elections in 2009. Given the increased number of citizens actively using social media such as Facebook and Twitter, the question arises whether social media can have a meaningful impact on participation in the upcoming elections. (...)

* The role played by social media in political participation and electoral campaigns (Giren: Gökhan)


12 papers on social media and political participation / seminar organised by La Pietra Dialogues LPD, New York University at Florence. Villa La Pietra, May 10-11 2013. This website includes twelve papers on social media and political participation presented at a seminar in Florence organised by New York University (La Pietra Dialogues) in May 2013. This seminar covers themes such as democracy and the internet, use of social media in political campaigns, power to mobilise collective actions and mass protests. Presentations study both the US and the European experiences. They give a comprehensive overview of the impact of the changing media landscape to patterns of political participation and the impact of social media in political campaigns.

* Europe Decides: Political campaigning gathers pace on social media (Giren: Gökhan)

(...) After the European Parliament launched its elections information campaign, genuine online political campaigning and debate around the polls is beginning to gather pace. Since 17 October we have – using social media tracking tool Keyhole – monitored 14,360 posts by 7,960 users on the European elections. As explained in a previous post, these tweets and Facebook messages – which have the collective potential to reach nearly 24 million accounts – will not include every single post on the 2014 elections, but nonetheless cover a sizeable chunk of the online debate.

* European Parliament's Youtube Account and the "Act, React, Impact" Project (Giren: Gökhan)

Act, React, Impact:

      • Exploring Affordances of Social Media Use in Election Campaigns: What Political Parties Want to Facilitate, Project and Create (Denmark and general) (Giren Tuğba)

Abstract:** In recent years, social media have become omnipresent and highly important for social networking and content sharing. Lately we have witnessed how also political parties adopt social media as part of their political campaign strategy. The purpose of this work-in-progress paper is to investigate this tendency by posing two research questions: 1) what do political parties perceive as affordances of social media use in their campaign strategy? And 2) how are these affordances reflected in the political parties’ actual actions during the campaign? To address the two questions, we conducted a qualitative case study of the political parties’ use of Facebook in the Danish general election in 2011. Our preliminary findings reveal three main categories of affordances that the political parties wish to pursue: 1) they want to facilitate direct communication to promote political interests and create room for dialogue in a controlled environment, 2) they want to project an image of authenticity through an informal media, and 3) they want to create interaction and involvement through dynamic relationships with voters. A closer look at the parties’ actual use of Facebook reveals that their intention of generating interaction and involvement is limited by their actions as most of them do not engage with the users’ posts and comments. The tensions between perceived affordances and actual use prompt further investigation of what political parties should consider when engaging in social media activities as part of their campaign strategy.

* Online strategies of members of the European parliament (Europe) (Giren: Tuğba)

Abstract: When the first social media site appeared, its goal was to link the students on a university campus so that they could exchange information. This application soon spread to linking (lost) friends and family, and was later extended to business and politics. Today social media are considered to be the marketing strategy du jour for corporations and organisations in the digitalised world. In a study that investigated the strategies of companies, government institutions and non-profit organisations (Zerfass, 2011), it was revealed that the professional role of the social media is increasing, with an average of seven social media sites being utilised by each public relations departments. Social media have quickly been adopted by policymakers as well. To have a presence on social media, politicians need to have celebrity appeal in order to be successful and to be able to form “friendships” with the wider public. While creating a profile itself is indispensable, being active on the media is crucial to success. Over a short period of several years, social media entered the mainstream of political communication. On the EU level, social media has been used since the campaign for the 2009 European Parliament elections. Through the use of different websites, Members of the European Parliament (MEPs) have tried to connect better with the potential electorate, offer more information about their work and opinion, and mobilise their supporters. Since then, the use of social media has developed and is becoming slightly more systematic among the MEPs. This essay is based on semistructured interviews with Members of the European Parliament (MEPs), their advisors and campaign managers, held in the period January-June 2012.


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* Journalism as social networking: The Australian youdecide project and the 2007 federal election (Giren: Sercan)

Participation in an action-research project run during the 2007 Australian federal election, youdecide 2007, allowed the authors to gain first-hand insights into the progress of citizen-led news media in Australia, but also allowed us to develop an account of what the work of facilitating citizen journalism involves. These insights are important to understanding the future of professional journalism and journalism education, as more mainstream media organizations move to accommodate and harness user-created content.

* E-Electioneering: Use of new media in the 2007 Australian federal election (Giren: Sercan)

This paper contributes to understanding of how new media are used in political communication and how they influence the public sphere (Habermas, 1989, 2006), particularly looking at public interaction and participation (Carpentier, 2007) which have been identified as key features of web 2.0 media and as requirements of an active public sphere, based on findings of a study conducted by the Australian Centre for Public Communication at the University of Technology Sydney during the 2007 Australian federal election.

* (NOT) THE TWITTER ELECTION: The dynamics of the #ausvotes conversation in relation to the Australian media ecology (Giren: Sercan)

This paper draws on a larger study of the uses of Australian user-created content and online social networks to examine the relationships between professional journalists and highly engaged Australian users of political media within the wider media ecology, with a particular focus on Twitter. It uses an analysis of topic-based conversation networks using the #ausvotes hashtag on Twitter around the 2010 federal election to explore the key themes and issues addressed by this Twitter community during the campaign, and finds that Twitter users were largely commenting on the performance of mainstream media and politicians rather than engaging in direct political discussion.


Abstract: To examine approaches taken to social media by other government agencies and EMBs in order to inform AEC participation in social media. The research will focus on the key areas of development of social media policies that facilitate communication with the public consistent with public service values and political neutrality and on measuring the effectiveness and value for money of social media engagement, particularly in reaching specific demographics such as young people. It will contextualise these findings within the existing academic research in the area and will itself contribute to the body of knowledge.

* Social Media in the Media: How Australian Media Perceive Social Media as Political Tools (Australia) (Giren: Tuğba)

Abstract: Social media are becoming increasingly integrated into political practices around the world. Politicians, citizens and journalists employ new media tools to support and supplement their political goals. This report examines the way in which social media are portrayed as political tools in Australian mainstream media in order to establish what the relations are between social media and mainstream media in political news reporting. Through the close content-analysis of 93 articles sampled from the years 2008, 2010 and 2012, we provide a longitudinal insight into how the perception by Australian journalists and news media organisations of social media as political tools has changed over time. As the mainstream media remain crucial in framing the public understanding of new technologies and practices, this enhances our understanding of the positioning of social media tools for political communication.

* Social Media, Youth Participation and Australian Elections (Australia) (Giren: Tuğba)

Abstract: The media landscape of Australia has been subject to rapid change in recent years. This

change comes from a range of sources: technological innovation and service improvement, the introduction of new and enhanced services, alterations to the political economy of media production, and the changing nature of users’ response to the technological capacities afforded to them. One of the most interesting developments in recent years has been the introduction of “social media”. Social media is defined by Bruns and Bahnisch as “technologies to provide space for in-depth social interaction, community formation, and the tackling of collaborative projects” (2009: 1). These technologies remediate and recreate user and audience communities around new and existing media. As much a social as a technological phenomena, social media is significant in considerably expanding the extent to which once-passive audiences are able to engage with media producers and fellow consumers. This is commonly linked to a “democratisation” of the media: the expanded interaction of members of the community through the media, and the ability of user communities to have greater editorial roles in shaping the content they consume, and recommend to peers in their social networks.


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* Politicians in the News: Media or Party Logic? Media Attention and Electoral Success in the Belgian Election Campaign of 2003 (Giren: Sercan)

This study departs from the finding that media attention contributed to the electoral success of candidates in the Belgian election campaign of 2003. While the authors do find an impact of media attention on the number of preferential votes for each candidate, in this study they take a closer look at the elements that determine this media attention. Do the media autonomously decide which candidate gets more attention than others or do they follow the hierarchy determined by the parties? In other words: is the media's interest in a politician a consequence of a media logic or of a party logic? As the study's multivariate analysis clearly indicates, both logics are relevant, with the party logic outweighing the media logic. However, the question remains to what extent the parties have already incorporated a media logic in the selection of their political personnel.

* Party profiles on the web: an analysis of the logfiles of non-partisan interactive political internet sites in the 2003 and 2004 election campaigns in Belgium (Giren: Sercan)

During recent election campaigns non-partisan party profile websites (PPWs) have become hugely popular in various countries with multiparty systems, sometimes even attracting 25 percent of all voters. On these interactive websites, PPW users respond to policy questions, and their answers are used to calculate the distance between their own preferences and party agendas, resulting in an individualized `party profile'. PPWs can be seen as one of the few innovations in election campaigning that fully exploit the internet's interactive opportunities. The analysis in this article of the log files of 2003 and 2004 Belgian PPWs demonstrate that PPW users tend to be highly educated, male and young. Party and policy preferences of late PPW users (the final days before the elections) are not more crystallized than those of early PPW users (40 days before the elections). The article concludes with speculation on what this finding might reveal about campaign dynamics.


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* Social Context and Campaign Volatility in New Democracies: Networks and Neighborhoods in Brazil's 2002 Elections (Giren: Sercan)

Utilizing a unique panel survey implemented during Brazil's historic 2002 presidential election, we demonstrate the importance of political discussion within social networks and neighborhood context for explaining preference change during election campaigns.

* Does Social Media Make a Difference in Political Campaigns? Digital Dividends in Brazil’s 2010 National Elections (Giren: Yuan)

Over the past decade, digital and mobile media have significantly changed the system of political communication in Brazil. An increasing number of Brazilian candidates have begun to use websites and social networking applications as an integral part of their overall campaign efforts.


* Hacking Scandal Rocks Presidential Election (Giren : Murat)

Colombia’s Technical Investigation Team arrested Andrés Fernando Sepúlveda (Oscar Ivan Zuluaga-candidate from Democratic Center party-'s Campaign Staff), accused of tracing current president and re-candidate Santos’s personal email, and spying on the peace negotiations between the Colombian government and the Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia (FARC) that, until now, had been carried out behind closed doors. Sepúlveda worked as a social media manager for Oscar Ivan Zuluaga’s campaign, Santos’s main electoral rival and an open opponent of the FARC peace negotiations.

* Colombia’s army to close most social media accounts for ‘reorganization’ (Giren : Murat)

Colombia’s Semana newsmagazine revealed that a ‘secret’ communicate released on the social media by the ex president Alvaro Uribe, the Army’s Department of Strategy and Communication ordered all divisions to close the social media accounts.The ex-president accused the army’s decision saying that ‘terrorism is defeating us without knowing.’


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*Algeria's Islamists Crushed In First Arab Spring Elections ( Giren : Eme )'s%20Islamists%20Crushed%20in%20First%20Arab%20Spring%20Elections_Viewpoints.pdf

David Ottaway is a senior scholar at the Wilson Center who has recently returned from Algeria. The Following Piece is an overview of his observations of Algeria's May 10 parliamentary elections.

* Algeria's Presidential Election and The Challenges Ahead (Giren: Eme )

Bouteflika will undoubtedly be re-elected, but his next term is unlikely to be a smooth one. There are several significant challenges that he and his government will have to confront to maintain stability and head off increasing public discontent.

*An Aging President Looks Set To Hang On Grimly, However Feeble His Health ( Giren : Eme )

The election campaign in Algeria, for instance, has carried a veneer of democratic practice, with six varied candidates bidding for the top prize. But the oil-rich Algerian state, with its legacy of one-party rule and legions of officials all carefully vetted for loyalty by an omnipresent secret police, tilts the outcome heavily towards the candidate anointed by “Le Pouvoir”, as Algerians call the circle of senior generals and security chiefs who actually run the country. Small wonder that Mr Bouteflika won his last two elections, in 2004 and 2009, with 85% and 90% of the vote, amid meagre turnouts and a strong whiff of fraud.

See more at:


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*Morocco's new elections just like the old elections (Giren :Eme)

(Insert Fas content here)


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* Riding the Web 2.0 Wave: Candidates on YouTube in the 2007 Finnish National Elections (Giren: Sercan)

This article seeks to expand the research on the adoption of social networking Web sites in electoral politics beyond the U.S. by exploring the use and impact of the YouTube video-sharing Web site in the 2007 Finnish national elections. Focusing on uploaded videos featuring candidates, the study shows that YouTube played a marginal role in the elections. Only 6% of the candidates disseminated YouTube videos. Online, the videos did not generally attract much public interest. However, the study also demonstrates that YouTube gave a voice to certain minor electoral players and ordinary citizens in the elections. The findings are compared with scholarly observations from the 2006 U.S. midterm elections—the first “YouTube elections.”

* The use of social media in the Finnish Parliament Elections 2011 (Finland) (Giren Tuğba)

Abstract: The report briefly outlines the role of online social media in the Finnish Parliament Elections of 17 April 2011. The main objective is to produce basic knowledge about the use of social media by the elected Members of Parliament (MPs) for a four week period: three weeks before and one week after the elections. To achieve this goal, the study examined the online social media profiles of MPs, focusing on their use of Facebook, Twitter, YouTube, blog platforms and Flickr. Overall, despite expectations of a significant effect that social media might have had in the elections, the majority of the current MPs have not displayed any extensive use of the social media as a tool tocommunicate with constituents. However, all parties, now recognized as leading in the Finnish Parliament, have registered their accounts in and actively use almost all social media considered in the study.


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* The 2014 election was about the ‘Power of the Photo’ and the ‘selfie’ (Giren: Zeynep)

Citizen photography ruled the day. "South Africans tweeted and shared the uhuru of voting through thumb-nail selfies as a way of celebrating their democratic right, while politicians took to Facebook and Twitter en masse”.

The DA’s ANC Ayisafani had over 700 000 YouTube views) from political parties and political leaders


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* The Implementation and Results of the Use of Social Media in the Republic of Georgia (Giren: Sercan)

Griffin, G., Noniashvili, M., & Batiashvili, M. (2014). The Implementation and Results of the Use of Social Media in the Republic of Georgia. Journal of Eastern European and Central Asian Research (JEECAR), 1(1), 8.

(Giren: Yuan)

* How Social Media Helped Win the Elections in the Country of Georgia (Giren: Yuan)



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* India's social media election battle (Giren: Yuan)

India's 16th general election - to be held in nine phases over April and May - will be closely fought, with some observers saying social media will play a vital role in deciding which party wins the most seats.

Politicians are taking part in Google+ Hangouts, televised interviews organised by Facebook and using the Facebook-owned smart phone messaging app WhatsApp to connect with millions of tech-savvy urban voters.

* India's new P.M (Giren: Yuan)

India's next prime minister, Narendra Modi, is a divisive politician - loved and loathed in equal measure. Narendra Modi is seen as a dynamic and efficient leader. He also used social media effectively, even resorting to 3D holograms to communicate directly to voters.

* Are India's young leaders making a mark? (Giren: Yuan)

With his thick head of black hair and faintly creased forehead, Anurag Thakur is not like the typical politician in India. He's less enthusiastic about using social media, letting his team manage Facebook and Twitter. "We tend to spend too much time on them and I think it's much more important to be able to deliver," he said.

* How Much Influence Did Social Media Have On India's Election (Giren: Yuan)

India's 2014 election is being called a #TwitterElection because it is the largest democratic election in the world to date and so much of it took place online. While there seems to be a number of correlations between the online activities and victories of the Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP), which swept up 427 seats in India's Lok Sabha or lower parliament, and of Narendra Modi, India's new prime minister, just how much of their success can be attributed to their social media savviness?

* Politicians slug it out in India's first social media election (Giren: Yuan)

Earlier this month during Holi, the Indian festival of colors, more than three million Twitter followers of the Indian prime ministerial candidate Narendra Modi received a personalized greeting from him. Others received celebratory recorded phone messages that concluded with an appeal to vote.

*Democracy as permanent Advertising: Indian Media and Elections(Giren: Eme)

""Based on the analyses of select elections coverage by five television channels – India TV, NDTV, Aaj Tak, ANI, and IBN– I argue that: 1) The way journalists pose questions to their favorite politicians are often already answers; 2) In pursuing a storyline, journalists ubordinate, even sacrifice, actual responses or events/facts to bolster their pre-determined narrative; and 3) Electoral polity like India is heading towards a designer democracy marked by permanent campaigning-cum-advertising. In short, I caution against the use of widespread phrase: ‘media and politics’. It is more fitting to say: ‘media as politics’ or ‘politics as media’.


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* Predicting the 2011 dutch senate election results with Twitter (Giren: Sercan)

To what extend can one use Twitter in opinion polls for political elections? Merely counting Twitter messages mentioning political party names is no guarantee for obtaining good election predictions. By improving the quality of the document collection and by performing sentiment analysis, predictions based on entity counts in tweets can be considerably improved, and become nearly as good as traditionally obtained opinion polls.

* SOCIAL MEDIA AS BEAT: Tweets as a news source during the 2010 British and Dutch elections (Giren: Sercan)

This article investigates the use of Twitter as a source for newspaper coverage of the 2010 British and Dutch elections. Almost a quarter of the British and nearly half of the Dutch candidates shared their thoughts, visions, and experiences on Twitter. Subsequently, these tweets were increasingly quoted in newspaper coverage. We present a typology of the functions tweets have in news reports: they were either considered newsworthy as such, were a reason for further reporting, or were used to illustrate a broader news story.

* The (Potential) Benefits of Campaigning via Social Network Sites (Giren: Sercan)

This paper examines how this personalized soft campaigning strategy worked in the 2006 Dutch elections and how interaction with potential voters can influence the evaluation of the candidates.

* Social Media and Political Participation: Are Facebook, Twitter and YouTube Democratizing Our Political Systems? (Netherlands) (Giren: Tuğba)

Abstract: This paper presents the results of a literature review in regard to Social Media and participation. Besides that, to understand the meaning and impact of Social Media on elections, we show field results from the 2010 and 2011 elections in the Netherlands. There are several challenges when it comes to engaging people in party politics. The current findings in literature show us that previous efforts to shape public participation with prior Internet tools did not meet expectations. With Social Media this could change, because participation seems to be the key concept that explains the difference between ‘old’ web and ‘new’ Social Media. In the Netherlands, Social Media did not significantly influence voting behaviour during the local elections (2010/2011). But, during the national elections (2010), politicians with higher Social Media engagement got relatively more votes within most political parties. In conclusion, we propose a future research agenda to study how political parties could benefit from Social Media to reinvent and improve the way they work with their members and volunteers.


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*Air Wars : Television Advertising and Social Media in Election Campaigns 1952-2012 (Giren : Eme)

*Iraq: Parliamentary Elections Campaign Kicks Off ( Giren: Eme)


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* Social media and political communication: A survey of Twitter users during the 2013 Italian general election (Giren: Sercan)

Cristian Vaccari, Augusto Valeriani, Pablo Barberá, Richard Bonneau, John T. Jost, Jonathan Nagler, Joshua Tucker, Social media and political communication: A survey of Twitter users during the 2013 Italian general election, in "Rivista italiana di scienza politica" 3/2013, pp. 381-410, doi: 10.1426/75245

* İtalya'daki seçimlerde sosyal medyayı aktif olarak kullanan bir aday: Beppe Grillo (Giren: Gökhan)

Grillo'nun kişisel blogu:

Grillo'nun toplantılarını düzenlemek için çokça kullandığı bir platform: meetup http://beppegrillo.meetup/

* Social Media and Political Communication (Giren Tuğba)

Abstract: Social media have become increasingly relevant in election campaigns, as both politicians and citizens have integrated them into their communication toolkits. However, little is known about which types of citizens employ social media to discuss politics and stay informed about current affairs and how they integrate the messages and social connections they encounter through these online networks with their offline repertoires of political action. In this article, we address these issues by investigating Italians who discussed politics on Twitter during the 2013 general election campaign.


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* Using Social Media to Gauge Iranian Public Opinion and Mood After the 2009 Election (Giren: Sercan)

In the months after the contested Iranian presidential election in June 2009, Iranians used Twitter — a social media service that allows users to send short text messages, called tweets, with relative anonymity — to speak out about the election and the protests and other events that followed it. The authors of this report used an automated content analysis program called Linguistic Inquiry and Word Count 2007 (LIWC) to analyze more than 2.5 million tweets discussing the Iran election that were sent in the nine months following it. The authors (1) identify patterns in word usage over the nine-month period and (2) examine whether these patterns coincided with political events, to gain insight into how people may have felt before, during, and after those events. For example, they compare how the frequencies with which negative sentiments were directed toward President Mahmoud Ahmadinejad, his election opponents, and President Barack Obama changed over time, and they track the way in which the use of swear words sharply increased in the days leading up to specific protests. Particularly in countries where freedom of expression is limited, automated analysis of social media appears to hold promise for such policy uses as assessing public opinion or outreach efforts and forecasting events such as large-scale protests.

* Twitter Free Iran: an Evaluation of Twitter's Role in Public Diplomacy and Information Operations in Iran's 2009 Election Crisis (Giren: Sercan)

We examine Twitter's role during Iran's 2009 election crisis using a comparative analysis of Twitter investors, US State Department diplomats, citizen activists and Iranian protesters and paramilitary forces. We code for key events during the election's aftermath from 12 June to 5 August 2009, and evaluate Twitter.

* Iran protests: Twitter, the medium of the movement (Giren: Sercan)

Grossman, L. (2009). Iran protests: Twitter, the medium of the movement. Time Magazine, 17.

* Media, Power, and Politics in the Digital Age: The 2009 Presidential Election Uprising in Iran (Giren: Sercan)

Focusing on the Iranian presidential elections of 2009 and ensuing demonstrations in major cities across Iran and world, Media, Power, and Politics in the Digital Age provides a balanced discussion of the role and impact of modern communication technologies, particularly the novel utilization of 'small digital media' vis-^-vis the elections and global media coverage. Written in a non-technical, easy to read, and accessible manner, the volume will appeal to scholars, students, policy makers and print professionals alike. To provide a global overview of media coverage and diverse perspectives on the controversial 2009 presidential election, this book consists of 24 original essays, covering issues from global media coverage to new media-social networking, from the ideological-political dimensions to the cultural facets of the elections. Organized in a cohesive manner, the writing styles and presentation remain varied and richly informative.

*Mardomi Nejad VS The Greens Irans Political Struggle Captured In Election Posters (Giern: Eme)

Iran’s hotly contested 2009 presidential elections and its tumultuous aftermath have been a source for numerous op-eds, policy speeches, and activist events from Tehran to New York and everywhere in between--to this day.


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  • Does Scotland ‘like’ This? Social Media Use by Political Parties and Candidates in Scotland during the 2010 UK General Election Campaign (Giren: Sercan)

Libri. Volume 62, Issue 2, Pages 109–124, ISSN (Online) 1865-8423, ISSN (Print) 0024-2667, DOI: 10.1515/libri-2012-0008, June 2012


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* Studying political microblogging: Twitter users in the 2010 Swedish election campaign (Giren: Sercan)

This article utilizes emerging online tools and presents a rationale for data collection and analysis of Twitter users. The suggested approach is exemplified with a case study: Twitter use during the 2010 Swedish election. Although many of the initial hopes for e-democracy appear to have gone largely unfulfilled, the successful employment of the internet during the 2008 US presidential campaign has again raised voices claiming that the internet, and particularly social media applications like Twitter, provides interesting opportunities for online campaigning and deliberation. Besides providing an overarching analysis of how Twitter use was fashioned during the 2010 Swedish election campaign, this study identifies different user types based on how high-end users utilized the Twitter service.

* Political and Media Systems Matter: A Comparison of Election News Coverage in Sweden and the United States (Giren: Sercan)

This study compares the news coverage of election campaigns in three Swedish newspapers at the time of the 2002 national election and three U.S. newspapers at the time of the 2004 presidential election. The results from the content analysis show that the metaframe of politics as a strategic game was more common in the U.S. newspapers, while the metaframe of politics as issues was more common in the Swedish newspapers. U.S. articles were also more likely to use the horse-race and political strategy frames. While U.S. coverage was predominantly descriptive in focus, an interpretive journalistic style was more often dominant in the Swedish articles. The results also show that the U.S. news stories were triggered by the words and actions of the campaigns more often than the Swedish news stories.


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* ‘Presidentialization’ in Japan? The Prime Minister, Media and Elections in Japan (Giren: Sercan)

ELLIS S. KRAUSS and BENJAMIN NYBLADE (2005). ‘Presidentialization’ in Japan? The Prime Minister, Media and Elections in Japan. British Journal of Political Science, 35, pp 357-368 doi:10.1017/S0007123405000190

* Japanese election campaigns in social media (Giren: Yuan)

Japan is preparing for parliamentary elections. And for the first time, candidates are campaigning on the web. It means many are getting a crash course in the politics of the Internet. Aljazeera's Rob McBride reports from Japan.

* E-Elections: Time for Japan to Embrace Online Campaigning (Giren: Yuan)

This article particularly focuses on the struggle of Japan to balance technological innovation, legal regulation, and individual rights. More specifically, it examines the conflict between Japan’s election laws and the desire of Japanese politicians, political parties, and voters to fully utilize the Internet’s capabilities to freely express themselves online during official election periods. Japan has interpreted its election laws to prohibit online campaigning and curb online voter activity during the official campaign period immediately preceding an election.

* EDITORIAL: Internet election campaigns can change Japan's politics ( Giren: Yuan)

The ban on the use of the Internet for election campaigns will finally be lifted in Japan, starting with the Upper House poll in July.


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* The facebook effect? on-line campaigning in the 2008 canadian and us elections (Giren: Sercan)

Small, T. (2008). The facebook effect? on-line campaigning in the 2008 canadian and us elections. POLICY, 85.


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* Uhuratta Kenyatta Campaign (Giren: Zeynep)

Uhuru Kenyatta TV was created to serve as alternative platform to TV selling his campaign. Footage from all rallies and campaigns would be edited, uploaded and shared across Uhuru Kenyatta Social Media platforms in Real-Time!


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* Democratisation in Malaysia: The impact of social media in the 2008 general election (Giren: Sercan)

Sani, M. A. M., & Zengeni, K. T. (2010, July). Democratisation in Malaysia: The impact of social media in the 2008 general election. In Paper was presented to the 18th Biennial Conference of the Asian Studies Association of Australia in Adelaide.

In February 2013, two-and-half months before Malaysia’s 13th general elections (GE13), Prime Minister Datuk Seri Najib Razak was quoted widely in the media that the country will experience its first “social media election”(Zahiid, 2013).The significance of his remarks lies in the exponential growth of social media users in Malaysia over the preceding five years. During the previous election in 2008, there were 800,000 Facebook and 3,429 Twitter users in Malaysia. However, by 2013 these numbers had increased to 13,220,000 for Facebook and 2,000,000 for Twitter users (, 2013)


Abstract: This paper underscores the importance of online research in illuminating the social processes underlyingInternet effects on politics. It is an empirical study of the effect of blogs on the 2008 general election inMalaysia that demonstrates the significant positive effect of having a blog on the likelihood of winning a Parliamentary seat, independent of controls. Theoretically, I expect that use of the Internet is a sound political strategy for disseminating information, given the Malaysian government’s censorship of traditional print and broadcast media. Using the population of electoral candidates in the 2008 general election (N=471), I estimate a logistic model predicting the effects of having a blog on winning a Parliamentary seat. The results show that opposition candidates benefit significantly more from having a blog than do non-opposition candidates, as blogging provides opportunities denied to them by Malaysia's statecontrolled media. Bloggers are more than seven times as likely to win an election compared to nonbloggers, controlling for incumbency, party membership, and race. This analysis also makes an exploratory effort to identify social mechanisms that can explain the effect of blogs. In addition to being an alternative source of information, blogs' potential for building interpersonal relationships and their role as mobilization tools are discussed using qualitative examples.


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* Morsi Meter (Giren: Gökhan)

This is an attempt to monitor the performance of the recently elected president Mohamed Morsiby documenting what have been achieved as opposed to his promises.

  • Egypt's Election: Beyond the Foregone conclusion ( Giren: Eme )

The current election in Egypt does not have the dynamism and variety that marked the first round of the 2012 election, when hopes were still high for a quick transition to democracy and stability. But General Sisi is indeed popular and will win this election, while Hamdeen Sabahi has put up a necessary and valiant competitive bid. Sisi will face difficult challenges and rising demands once in office. It is not clear how long his popularity will hold out in the face of very difficult socioeconomic conditions and a security situation that is unlikely to stabilize anytime soon. On the other hand, if he is able to bring back a modicum of stability and show that investment, Gulf aid, and large initiatives are getting the Egyptian economy moving at a healthy pace, he could have a longer tenure.

*Sisi's Unconventional campaign ( Giren: Eme)

Sisi’s official campaign has also not been very active on the ground, instead focusing on outreach to the media, social media, and the delegations that come visit the former Field Marshal on a daily basis. In a rare attempt to reach out directly to voters, the Sisi campaign’s youth committee began distributing 300,000 energy saving light bulbs but reportedly ceased doing so when the body supervising the elections noted that such a campaign tactic could be illegal.


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* Platform for Individualized Campaigning? Social Media and Parliamentary Candidates in the 2009 Norwegian Election Campaign (Giren: Sercan)

This article argues that the effect of new technology depends on the contextual characteristics of the campaign, most importantly the nomination process and the electoral system. It investigates the effect of online social media on individual candidate campaigning through a study of parliamentary candidates' use of social media in the 2009 Norwegian election campaign, a campaign environment with few incentives for candidates to undertake individualized campaigning, using the 2009 Norwegian Candidate Study.


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* Tweets and Votes: A Study of the 2011 Singapore General Election (Giren: Sercan)

This study focuses on the uses of Twitter during the elections, examining whether the messages posted online are reflective of the climate of public opinion. Using Twitter data obtained during the official campaign period of the 2011 Singapore General Election, we test the predictive power of tweets in forecasting the election results.

* 5 Ways Social Media Has Impacted The Singapore General Election (Giren: Yuan)

It is clear that the Internet has played an important role in shaping the electoral results in 2011.

* Impact of New Media on General Election 2011 (Giren: Yuan)

Whether the general election in May deserved the epithet of ‘Singapore’s First Internet Election”, there is no doubt that new media played a significant role in the way political parties and candidates communicated with voters, and the way citizens communicated with one another. The Institute of Policy Studies is bringing you a conference aimed at a more insightful understanding of the impact of the Internet on the polls. This one-day event will showcase a multi-study project led by IPS that brings together a dozen researchers from several other institutions including the National University of Singapore, the Nanyang Technological University and SIM University.

The studies focus on the impact of what is done online and offline by the different players (parties and candidates, bloggers, mainstream media, opinion makers; voters); the consequences to the voter (their political knowledge, the perception of candidates and parties; and their voting behaviour); and the role of technology (social media, mobile telephony). One highlight of the conference is a nation-wide survey of voters that reveals how they use different media, from newspapers to television, blogs, Facebook and Twitter. The survey also examines their political attitudes, their political activities during the polls and their voting decisions.

*How impactful was social media in Singapore's General Elections? (Giren: Yuan)

The dust has settled from the great tussle that Singapore's General Elections 2011 (or 'watershed elections' as some put it). We know that the use of social media by the politicians and by citizenry was liberalized and resulted in a lot of interest.


The fact that social media took the lead on election night should not have come as a surprise. Throughout the 2011 election, social media played a big part in driving the campaign narrative. Social media was also arguably a key contributor to the record vote recorded against the ruling People’s Action Party (PAP) which was just shy of 40%.


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*Syria's Parliamentary Elections ( Giren : Eme)

Remodeling Asad's Political Base scholar research.

*Facebook pressured to refuse access to Assad campaign in Syria election ( Giren: Eme)

The Syria Campaign on Monday launched an online petition, calling on the social-media giant to cut off Assad’s Sawa (meaning “together” in Arabic) campaign.

The Sawa Facebook site, launched on 10 May, has so far attracted more than 200,000 “likes”. Advertisements for the Sawa campaign briefly appeared alongside some people’s Facebook pages, depending on their likes and interests; according to the activists, such ads have appeared alongside the pages of Syrians who stand against the Assad regime.

*Election In War Zone: No One Expects Syria's Assad To Lose This One ( Giren: Eme )

If this were a real election, the campaign issues would be monumental, but as it is, the only issue is who can and will vote. An estimated 40 percent of the country is now outside government control, and Syrians who live in those areas have no way to reach the polls, which will be situated only in government-controlled areas. At least two million Syrians have fled the country, many of them with nothing but the clothes on their backs, as government warplanes bombarded their towns. Left without proper identification, hundreds of thousands of Syrians crossed through the porous Turkish and Lebanese borders to seek refuge. They are barred from voting in Syria’s upcoming election because they “exited illegally.”


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How influential is social media in Thailand’s election? (Giren: Yuan)

I’ve read, seen and heard a number of statements discussing the role of social media in Thailand politics. Most conclude that the role of social media will be “huge” in the forthcoming Thai election, however the subject is somewhat more complicated and worth exploring.

Jon Russell writes how politicians in Thailand are using the social media in preparation for the coming elections.

* Thailand elections- use of social media (Giren: Yuan)

* Free Space of Expression: New Media and Thailand’s Politics (Giren: Yuan)

Abstract: The rise of new media in Thailand has occurred during one of the toughest periods in Thailand’s recent political history. A political crisis since 2005 has created an increasingly divided society. whilst Thailand’s press freedom was previously considered “free,” existing political challenges are immense and challenge directly Thailand’s taboo topic - the monarchy. The state controlled and anti-competitive nature of Thailand’s traditional media has meant a siding with the status quo. State censorship and even self-censorship in the media is common. new media seems to be the only way people can discuss freely their political beliefs. or is that really so? This report is an investigation into the political usage of new media in Thailand from varying viewpoints of politicians, activists and Thai internet users.


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*Tunisia Opens First Election Campaign Since Uprising ( Giren: Eme)

Tunisia's cities were decorated with posters for hundreds of candidates from scores of new parties when campaigning began on Saturday for what is billed as the first free election in the country's history.

*Tunisia's Electoral lesson: The Importance of Campaign Strategy ( Giren: Eme)

The large secular parties’ reliance on advertising and reluctance to meet voters outside of the major cities made it difficult for undecided, rural voters, to put their confidence in them. The majority of Tunisians showed this weekend that Ennahda not only understood their preferences, but also that Tunisian voters cannot be taken for granted and should be reached out to directly. As the final votes are tallied, secular parties should reflect on the valuable lesson that was taught this weekend.


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* (Wisdom of the Crowds)2: 2010 UK Election Prediction with Social Media (Giren: Sercan)

The vote share of the 2010 UK general election is forecasted here by applying twice the concept behind Galton's predictive “wisdom of the crowds,” first, by aggregating at the media level (Facebook, Twitter, Twitter Sentiment, YouTube, Google) the political opinion of the audience and second, by averaging at the media level each prediction.

* 'Open Source Campaigning?’: UK Party Organisations and the Use of the New Media in the 2010 General Election (Giren: Sercan)

This paper examines efforts by UK parties to use new social media tools to mobilize members and wider supporters in the 2010 General election. It focuses on five parties specifically – Labour, the Conservatives, the LibDems, the Scottish Nationalist Party and the British National Party – each of which, set up separate campaign ‘hubs’ on the web for non-members to join, network and most importantly undertake action for the party.

* The Formation of Campaign Agendas: A Comparative Analysis of Party and Media Roles in Recent American and British Elections (Giren: Sercan)

This unusual volume seeks to accomplish three related goals:

  • to assess the extent and limits of media power in election campaigns
  • to extend the concept of media agenda-setting to include the contributions of powerful news sources in the process of election agenda formation
  • to evaluate the impact of national system variables (differences in political and media systems) on the balance of party and media forces in the formation of campaign agendas

* Virtually Members: The Facebook and Twitter Followers of UK. Political Parties (Giren: Gökhan)

The internet and social media are having a profound effect on British politics: it will re-shape the way elections are won and lost, how policy is made, and how people get involved in formal and informal politics.

In this series of short briefing papers, the Centre for the Analysis of Social Media (CASM) will be looking at how the changing ways we communicate and coordinate will alter politics, including the importance of social media campaigning in marginal seats and whether Twitter can predict elections. Authors will include Alberto Nardelli (Tweetminster), Angus Bankes (JustAddRed) and Matthew Cain (Trufflenet).

* #UKelection2010, mainstream media and the role of the internet: how social and digital media affected the business of politics and journalism (United Kingdom) (Giren Tuğba)

Abstract:** The 2010 UK election was billed as the internet election, the social media election – with much attention focused on how campaigners, commentators and voters would respond to ground-breaking digital campaigns elsewhere; notably in the United States. From Twitter to Facebook, through viral crowdsourced ads, sentiment tracking and internet polling, technology appeared to offer political parties and mainstream media organisations powerful new ways to engage voters and audiences. And there were high hopes that new forms of personal expression through blogs and social networks would widen participation and the range of democratic voices. Ironically, the biggest media story of the 2010 election ended up being a television event: a setpiece leadership debate which turned the campaign on its head – with the internet seen as something of a sideshow. For the sceptics, this was proof that old media stil called the shots and that the claims of the digital evangelists were overblown. But this paper argues that the 2010 election did mark another significant milestone in the onward march of the internet, with unprecedented levels of participation and new techniques providing extra layers of information, context and real-time feedback, which complemented and enriched more traditional forms of media.


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ÖZET: Günümüzde siyasal seçim kampanyalarının doğası, 21. yüzyılın dinamikleri gereği farklılaşmış durumdadır. Bunun en önemli nedenlerinden biri de yeni iletişim teknolojilerinde yaşanan gelişmelerdir. Yeni iletişim teknolojileriyle seçmene doğrudan ulaşabilme imkânının bulunması, seçim kampanyalarını da etkilemekte ve daha farklı stratejilerin uygulandığı bir süreci zorunlu kılmaktadır. Öte yandan yeni iletişim teknolojilerinin internet sayesinde gelişiminin hızlandığını da göz ardı etmemek gerekmektedir. Amerika gibi gelişmiş ülkelerde, her iki kişiden birinin internet kullanıcısı olduğu düşünüldüğünde, bu durumun seçim kampanyalarında dikkate alınması gerektiği görülmektedir. Yeni iletişim teknolojilerinin gelişmesi beraberinde yeni iletişim ortamlarını da getirmektedir. Bu mecralardan biri de bloglardır. İnternet günlüğü olarak kullanılan bloglar, başta 2008 Amerika Başkanlık Seçimleri olmak üzere, içeriği ve kullanım kolaylığı açısından seçim kampanyalarının da gözde mecralarından biri haline gelmiştir.

Bu çalışmada, öncelikle siyasal kampanyalar, yeni iletişim teknolojilerinin kullanımları ve internet, seçim kampanyaları ve bloglar, Amerika’da yeni iletişim teknolojileri, internet ve blog kullanımı, 2008 Amerika Başkanlık Seçimleri’nde blogların nasıl kullanıldığı tartışılacaktır. Bu tartışmanın ardından Barack Obama ve John McCain’in bloglarından seçmene nasıl ulaştıklarına ilişkin, Gibson, Margolis, Resnick ve Ward’un (2001) “Election Campaigning on the WWW in the US and the UK: A Comparative Analysis” adlı çalışmasında kullandıkları yöntem temel alınarak bir inceleme yapılacaktır.

* Barack Obama'nın 2008 başkanlık seçim sürecini kazanmasında yeni iletişim teknolojileri ve sosyal medyanın kullanımı (Giren: Sercan)

eknolojinin hızla gelişmekte olduğu bilgi çağı olarak da adlandırılan yirmi birinci yüzyıla girdiğimiz bu yıllarda, politikacılar siyasi rakiplerine karşı ütsün gelmek, seçmen kitlelerinin desteğini almak amacıyla kullandıkları yöntem ve tekniklerde de değişikliklere giderek yeni iletişim teknolojilerinden ve dolayısıyla sosyal medyadan yararlanmaya başlamışlardır. Amerika Birleşik Devletlerinin tarihinde ilk defa siyah bir aday, Barack Obama, başkanlık yarışında yer almış ve 4 Kasım 2008 tarihinde yapılan başkanlık seçiminde etkin ve başarılı bir şekilde kullandığı web-tabanlı yeni iletişim teknolojileri sayesinde sıra dışı bir seçim kampanyası yürüterek rakip partiye karşı bir üstünlük kazanmış ve Amerika Birleşik Devletlerinin 44ncü Devlet Başkanı seçilmiştir. Bu tez çalışmasının amacı, Barack Obama ve Demokrat Partinin kendilerini zafere götüren seçim kampanyaları ve çalışmaları sürecinde web-tabanlı yeni iletişim teknolojileri ve sosyal medyanın kullanımını ve bunların kampanya sürecindeki etkilerini incelemektir. Bu amaçla hazırlanan dört bölüme ayrılan çalışmanın ilk bölümünde, siyasal iletişim kavramı, süreci ve siyasal iletişim kapsamında siyasal pazarlama, reklamcılık ve halkla ilişkiler olguları incelenmiştir. İkinci bölümde, Amerikan Siyasal Sistemi, ABD Başkanlık Seçimi süreci ve televizyon ve radyonun kitle iletişiminde kullanılmaya başlamasında bu yana ABD seçim kampanyalarında kullanılan iletişim teknolojileri irdelenmiştir. Üçüncü bölümde, Web 2.0 tabanlı iletişim teknolojileri ve sosyal medya kavramı üzerinde durulmakta ve son bölümde ise 2008 yılı ABD Başkanlık seçim sürecinde Barack Obama ve partisinin web-tabanlı yeni iletişim teknolojileri ve sosyal medyayı kullanım biçimleri incelenmiştir. Anahtar Kelimeler: Siyasal İletişim, 2008 ABD Başkanlık Seçimleri, Barack Obama, Web 2.0, Sosyal Medya

* How Barack Obama Is Using Web 2.0 to Run for President (Giren: Nesli)

A fundamental understanding of communication has always been at the center of a politician's arsenal, but a firm grasp on the future of communication can be the secret weapon that wins the war. For Franklin D. Roosevelt, it was radio. For John F. Kennedy, it was television. And for Barack Obama, it is social media.

* Network Issue Agendas on Twitter During the 2012 U.S. Presidential Election (Giren: Sercan)

Vargo, C. J., Guo, L., McCombs, M., & Shaw, D. L. (2014). Network Issue Agendas on Twitter During the 2012 US Presidential Election. Journal of Communication, 64(2), 296-316.

* Did Social Media Really Matter? College Students' Use of Online Media and Political Decision Making in the 2008 Election (Giren: Sercan)

Kushin, M. J., & Yamamoto, M. (2010). Did social media really matter? College students' use of online media and political decision making in the 2008 election.Mass Communication and Society, 13(5), 608-630.

* Which candidates do the public discuss online in an election campaign?: The use of social media by 2012 presidential candidates and its impact on candidate salience (Giren: Sercan)

Sounman Hong, Daniel Nadler, Government Information Quarterly, Volume 29, Issue 4, October 2012, Pages 455–461

* From Networked Nominee to Networked Nation: Examining the Impact of Web 2.0 and Social Media on Political Participation and Civic Engagement in the 2008 Obama Campaign (Giren: Sercan)

This article explores the uses of Web 2.0 and social media by the 2008 Obama presidential campaign and asks three primary questions: (1) What techniques allowed the Obama campaign to translate online activity to on-the-ground activism? (2) What sociotechnical factors enabled the Obama campaign to generate so many campaign contributions? (3) Did the Obama campaign facilitate the development of an ongoing social movement that will influence his administration and governance?

* Yes We Did! An inside look at how social media built the Obama brand (Giren: Sercan)

In Yes We Did, new media strategist and campaign headquarters volunteer Rahaf Harfoush gives us a behind the-scenes look at the campaign’s use of technology, from its earliest days through election night. She reveals strategic insights organizations can apply to their own brands. Discover how unwavering strategic vision and collaborative technologies—email, blogs, social networks, Twitter, and SMS messaging—empowered a formidable online community to help elect the world’s first “digital” President.

*Obma Trolling : Memes, Salutes and Agonistic Politics in the 2012 Presidential Election (Giern: Eme)

During the 2012 presidential campaign an explosion of photo-shopped images circulated that depicted President Obama as unpatriotic. The ‘crotch salute’, ‘left-hand salute’, and ‘Veterans Day non-salute’ serve as case studies for understanding the role of trolling in the public sphere and Internet politics in an era of social networks and circulation. This paper tracks the cultural practices and logics of ‘sharing’ political memes and conceptualises memes as part of an agonistic public sphere and media ecology. Obama trolling is facilitated through the techno-cultural affordances of memes, which can only become public because of their mimetic form and sterilised partial anonymity. The paper seeks to conceptualise trolling as a broader cultural practice, which can be considered political. Normative assumptions about these memes would portray this trafficking as destructive to deliberative democracy but when understood as a generative cultural practice, trolling becomes central to articulating political emotions in social networks. Photo-shopped Obama salutes, in addition to Big Bird, binder, and bayonet memes, express not only political identities but also larger cultural values within networked popular culture.

*How the Presidential Candidates Use the Web and Social Media (Giren: Yuan)

A new study of how the campaigns are using digital tools to talk directly with voters-bypassing the filter of traditional media-finds that the Obama campaign posted nearly four times as much content as the Romney campaign and was active on nearly twice as many platforms.

*Voter Mobilization and the Obama Victory ( Giren : Eme)

Abstract As with the other presidential elections from this decade, the 2008 election was followed by considerable speculation as to how new efforts to mobilize voters affected the eventual outcome. Although the conventional wisdom implies that “Democrats benefit from higher turnout,” previous research in political science demonstrates that such a conclusion applies to actual election results inconsistently.

* Media Predictors during the 2012 Presidential Election: Political Understanding, Discussion and Candidate Likeability (Giren: Tuğba)

Abstract: This study examined the influence of traditional and online media variables on political understanding, discussion and likeability of the major 2012 U.S. presidential candidates. Political information seeking on web sites and blogs contributed to confidence in understanding political issues but not for reducing the complexity of government. All three online sources studied predicted increased interpersonal communication about politics, as did viewing television news and listening to radio news. Almost all of the media variables influenced evaluations of the major party candidates with some reducing positive evaluations and others increasing them. Exposure to radio news was consistent predictor but varied based on measurement and candidate. Future studies should consider greater complexity of measures to consider type of discussion and social media.

* Government Information Quarterly (Giren: Tuğba)

Abstract: The effects of new communication technologies on election campaigns, and the effectiveness of mediacentered campaign strategies more broadly, remain ongoing subjects for debate in political science. This study provides some of the first empirical evidence about the potential impact of social media on the 2012 U.S. presidential elections, by testing the association between “candidate salience” and the candidates' level of engagement in online social media sphere. We define “candidate salience” as the extent to which candidates are discussed online by the public in an election campaign, and have selected the number of mentions presidential candidates receive on the social media site, Twitter, as means of quantifying their salience. This strategy allows us to examine whether social media, which is widely recognized as disruptive in the broader economic and social domains, has the potential to change the traditional dynamics of U.S. election campaigns. We find that while social media does substantially expand the possible modes and methods of election campaigning, high levels of social media activity on the part of presidential candidates have, as of yet, resulted in minimal effects on the amount of public attention they receive online.

* Presidential Politics: The Social Media Revolution (Giren: Tuğba)

Abstract: Social media is without a doubt shaping the future of presidential campaigning in America. The invention of the Internet (a connection of small computer networks to a vast array of computer networks from around the world) has made it possible for people today to create social webs entirely free of physical interaction. In the scope of political campaigning, this notion brings to the table a plethora of new concepts; for starters, online users form an entirely new demographic construction than the typically understood United States voter population. Second, the fundraising game doesn’t necessarily depend on who you know but rather how many and finally, the connection of people via social networks online easily translates into volunteer organizations offline. In the 2008 and 2012 presidential elections President Barack Obama watched as the Internet shifted the behaviors and expectations of the American populous, and appropriately realized his campaign strategy needed to reflect those changes. Therefore, this thesis will focus on how the Internet introduced social media and online social networks into politics and how President Barack Obama became the first presidential candidate to seriously integrate social media into his campaign strategy.

* The Effect of Social Media in the 2012 Presidential Election (Giren: Tuğba)

  • Abstract: Social networking has transformed the way people communicate and has allowed for constant access to each other. The Internet created a new outlet for almost every aspect of life. Not only has the real world been placed right at everyone’s fingertips as soon as they go near a computer, but this access has created a perpetual stream of media. These new forms of communication via social networking are not just for reconnecting with old friends. The usage of these social sites provides new, previously unavailable connections of which politicians have begun to take advantage. Social media has required a reconstruction in the way political campaigns are run. Now the campaign can never be shut off. People constantly search for election news and updates and even when they are not, the candidates wish they were. President Obama and former Governor Romney each approached the online campaign with different tactics. The effect of social media in the 2012 presidential election campaigns of President Barack Obama and Mitt Romney showed a sharp contrast in the effective usage of online media and advertising in drawing the attention of voters.

* The New Campaign: Social Networking Sites inthe 2008 Presidential Election (Giren: Tuğba)

Abstract: This study examines how Social-Networking sites were used in the 2008 presidential election with emphasis on Facebook and how this use impacted the youth vote. The 2008 election was the first in the history of elections to utilize such campaign tactics. Findings indicated that social networking sites more than likely did have an impact on the election. Although this impact was not a direct impact, through political socialization, campaigning through Facebook did help increase awareness of election related information. Findings also indicated that a less is more strategy is better when using social-networking sites for campaigning as well as focusing messages sent through this medium to the targeted audience. Social-networking sites will likely be used in many elections to come to reach not only young voters, but voters of all ages. The use of these sites provides for a cheap, quick way to reach voters with a message that is not interpreted by a third party.

Abstract: The effect social media will have in these elections, then, is that they allow non-elites to frame and distribute content made by elites. The biggest change that can occur, then, is that framing by social media can shift how the professional media itself frames stories. Social media feeds the loop of news judgment.

* US Presidential Election 2012 Prediction using Census Corrected Twitter Model (Giren: Tuğba)

Abstract: US Presidential Election 2012 has been a very tight race between the two key candidates. There were intense battle between the two key candidates. The election reflects the sentiment of the electorate towards the achievements of the incumbent President Obama. The campaign lasted several months and the effects can be felt in the internet and twitter. The presidential debates injected new vigor in the challenger's campaign and successfully captured the electorate of several states posing a threat to the incumbent's position. Much of the sentiment in the election has been captured in the online discussions. In this paper, we will be using the original model described in Choy et. al. (2011) using twitter data to forecast the next US president.

* New Media: Transforming Presidential Politics or Just the Usual? (Giren: Tuğba)

Abstract: The 2008 presidential campaigns was a historical campaign not only because it saw the first African American candidate, but because it saw the coming of a new media presidential campaign. New media refers to the growing number of electronic forms of communication made possible through computer technologies. The term includes social networking web sites such as Facebook, YouTube, and Twitter, which dabble in presenting news while fostering social networking (Graber 2009, 36). New media did leave a mark on the 2008 presidential campaign, but has it truly revolutionized political campaigns and is it effective tool when used for governing? My proposed central questions are did new media create higher interest and engagement in the 2008 election, particularly among young people? Does new media change the political environment in a way that advantages some types of candidates and disadvantages others? Finally, are presidents able to govern more effectively with new media?

* Social Media and Political Campaigns (Giren: Tuğba)

Abstract: Within the selection of resources reviewed, the following subcategories were identified: President Obama‘s use of social media in the 2008 presidential campaign, the current use of social media in political campaigns, problems with social media use, and the future predictions for use of social media. This is the order in which the following research is presented. It is important to note that some of these sources could be applied to any and all categories.

* Democratic Process and Social Media: A Study of Us Presidential Election 2012 (Giren: Tuğba)

Abstract: Social media offers innovative opportunities for political actors, political institutions and the public to interact with one another. Drawing on examples from United States and the United Kingdom, this paper outlines how social media are currently being used in the political arena.

In America, many parliamentarians have created accounts on popular sites such as Facebook, Twitter, Orkut, MySpace and Flickr. The content posted on these sites may relate to policy issues and the official work of politicians or to aspects of their personal lives. All four political parties represented in American Senate have accounts on Facebook, Twitter, MySpace and Flickr. Each party also has its own YouTube channel on which news clips, advertisements, and other video recordings related to the party and its officials are shared with the public. Links to these accounts are included on the official websites of each party, along with features that allow users to “bookmark” and share elements of the party’s websites with their online networks. Each party website also has unique social media features.

* Social Media and the 2008 U.S. Presidential Election (Giren: Tuğba)

Abstract: This report is an analysis of social media in the 2008 U.S. presidential election from 30,000 feet. We evaluate conventional wisdom about social media and its applicability to political campaigns in particular and to public relations more generally. We contrast that conventional wisdom with empirical findings taken from the 2008 presidential campaign season, using data collected with Radian6. We place those findings in the context of existing research on political communication, political engagement, and the role of social media in communication campaigns. We conclude with predictions about future developments concerning social media, American politics, and reputation management using social media tools

* Cyber-Politics: How New Media has Revolutionized Electoral Politics in the United States (Giren Tuğba)

Abstract: This paper addresses the impact new media tools have on different segments of the electoral process in the United States. Specifically, it looks at the impact new media has by providing information, influencing the news cycle and setting agendas, shaping public opinion, providing more fundraising opportunities, increasing political participation and youth voter turnout, and changing election results. This paper does so by drawing on systematic studies, data from the Pew Research Center, and case studies, specifically that of the 2008 Presidential Election. This analysis is unique in that it uses very current information, focusing on the 2008 election, as this was the first election in which new media was fully integrated into campaign strategies. It is also unique in that it analyzes several types of new media including social networks, blogging, campaign websites, and Internet fundraising. These findings suggest that new media does influence and shape the course of the electoral process in the United States through the six aspects of the electoral process presented in this paper.


Abstract: A reading of New York Times’ coverage of the 2008 presidential campaign demonstrates that America’s most influential newspaper paid a great deal of attention to the role of new media (and some old media – television, cable television, television advertising) in the campaign. As a kind of reader’s diary chronicling the Times’ account, this article fi nds that the news coverage emphasised a new intensity, a remarkable ubiquity, and a note of anarchism in the new communication media, enabling citizens with little connection to candidate or party power centres to at least briefl y gain national notoriety in political news.

* Social media in election campaigning States (Giren Tuğba)

Abstract: Low engagement of citizens in politics and ever declining voter turnout are taken as evidence of a democratic deficit in the European Union. By providing a new form of communication among politicians and citizens, social media may provide a way of increasing citizen involvement in political life, especially during election campaigns. Social media allow political actors, particularly smaller parties or less well-known candidates, to bypass mass-media filters. They can influence journalists who follow social media for story ideas. Whilst specific targeting of voters, which has proven effective elsewhere, may be problematic in much of the EU, messages can at least be targeted at the young, the largest group of social media users. They can be used to organise or reinforce participation in 'offline' events, and can increase the personal appeal of a candidate. The network effects of social media, amplifying as they do the transmission of a political message through social connections, make social media a valuable part of an election campaign. While social media is increasingly used in campaigns across Europe, the ultimate effect of this usage remains unclear. Some attribute the increasing levels of political activity on the internet to citizens who are already politically committed. It may be that social media have only a very limited effect on getting otherwise disengaged citizens to engage – even just to go out to vote. It will take time, and more elections such as the forthcoming May 2014 European Parliament election, to evaluate the true role that social media will come to play.

  • New Media – The Cutting Edge of Campaign Communications (Giren Tuğba)

Abstract: Internet strategy now plays a central role in presidental campaigns. In 1996, a campaign's Inernet strategy meant having a Web site that by today's standards seems ameteurish. Internet strategy was allocated a tiny proportion of the campaign budget and was offen carried out by youger campaign staffers or volunteers with technical skill but littl political experience. Straffers complained that they could not get their candidates to mention the Web site in speeches or devote any money to site development. Web site were often litte more than "electonic brochure(s)."

* New Challenges to Political Privacy: Lessons from the First U.S. Presidential Race in the Web 2.0 Era (Giren Tuğba)

Abstract: Pundits and scholars laud online campaigning for its potential to democratize politics and praise the 2008 Barack Obama campaign for using new information technologies to mobilize voters. Underneath these extraordinary forms of technologically-enabled political participation, however, is an infrastructure and industry for political data that has received far less attention. To help fill this gap in scholarly understanding, we provide an overview of the data practices of political campaigns over the last decade and take a particularly close look at many of the new tools used by the Obama campaign. As a call for further research, we then outline a set of potential normative concerns about this use of data. We suggest that the data practices of campaigns and other political organizations may undermine important democratic norms. Campaigns erode privacy and narrow political debate by using data on citizens and social networks to tailor messages and communicate with narrowly-defined segments of voters. The lack of policy oversight erodes institutional transparency and leaves citizens vulnerable to breeches in personal data.

* “Political Campaigns and New Media: A Changing Landscape” (Giren Tuğba)

Abstract: The emergence of more journalistic niches has created a more competitive media environment, with an increased reliance on political polling in campaign coverage. As the traditional media provide horse race coverage, the polling process is becoming more volatile and unreliable. Experts worry that this dependence on polls is detracting from more important subjects – such as understanding the importance of elections and forging relationships with political candidates. Meanwhile, new media are developing two-way dialogues between citizens and candidates. Traditional and new media are balancing one another, but it is unclear whether the scales will remain stable or tip, ushering in an era of altered political engagement.

* Presidential Communication in the Internet Era (Giren Tuğba)